That year the United Provinces of Central America were formed from five Central American countries.When that federation dissolved in 1838, El Salvador became an independent republic.Mountains separate the country into the southern coastal belt, the central valleys and plateaus, and the northern mountains.
The indigenous peoples were exploited and mistreated.
Independence from Spain (1821) was sought by criollos who were inspired by the American and French revolutions.
The first decades of independence saw uprisings by poor mestizos and Indians to protest their impoverishment and marginalization.
Before the cultivation of coffee was introduced in the late nineteenth century, indigo was the principal export crop.
Salvadorans in the United States often have plaques that contain the flag, as a symbol of national pride.
Since independence, the blue in the flag has symbolized support for the ruling oligarchy, while the red has symbolized support for communism or resistance.
Conservative political parties use blue in their banners; a liberal party, the Farabunda Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN), uses red and centralist parties use blue or green.
During the civil war, both sides sang the national hymn. Before the Spanish conquest, the area that is now El Salvador was made up of two large Indian states and several principalities. Spain's first attempt to conquer the area failed as the Pipil forced Spanish troops to retreat.
In 1833, an Indian rebellion of indigo sowers and cutters led by Anastasio Aquino demanded distribution of land to the poor and the just application of the penal laws, the only laws applied to the poor. Thousands of rural peasants were displaced as new laws incorporated their lands into large "modern" coffee plantations where peasants were forced to work for very low wages.